Research methods
Project Information | Logistics | Effective Rubric Characteristics | Co-construction Process | Using Co-constructed Rubrics | Rubrics Examples | Research Methods | Recommendations for Practice | References & Publications | Model of Collaborative Rubric Construction | Workshop

The project approach adopted a four-phase mixed method design across a two-year period that employed case study and Delphi methods of research.

The project was guided by a set of research questions which were aligned to the four project phases.

Project phases and research questions



1-2: Effective rubrics

1. What are the characteristics of effective rubrics?

2: Collaborative rubric construction and use

2. How can students and teachers co-construct and plan the collaborative use of rubrics for student learning?

3-4: Effect of collaborative rubric construction on student learning

3. What effect does the co-construction and use of rubrics have on student and lecturer perceptions of student learning?

4: Model of collaborative rubric construction and use

4. What practical, research-informed recommendations can be used to engage students and academic staff in the collaborative process of designing and using assessment rubrics to promote learning?

Phase 1: Organisation

  • Team organisation
  • Establishing project boundaries, scope and aims
  • Construction of data gathering instruments required for Phase 2

Phase 2: Delphi technique/ Multiple case studies – Rubric co-construction

  • Employment of the project's methodology
  • Literature review
  • Delphi technique to establish the characteristics of effective rubric design
  • Creation of the Effective Rubric Characteristics Inventory (ERCI) that guided the subsequent rubric co-construction processes followed by six cohorts

DELPHI Technique to arrive at ERCI

Phase 3: Multiple case studies – Rubric use:

  • Multiple case study approach was adopted - six cohorts of students at three institutions
  • Co-construction of rubrics
  • Use of co-constructed rubrics
  • Gathering data about co-construction process, use of co-constructed rubrics, and views about rubrics, co-construction and use

Phase 4: Dissemination

  • Created a Model for Collaborative Rubric Construction and Use
  • Creation of project’s website
  • Creation of project’s workshop materials
  • Provision of project’s workshop
  • Dissemination of project’s findings through Final Report and scholarly publications

For more details about the project’s methodology and methods, see:


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